Napata was established by Thutmose III in the fifteenth century BC after his triumph of Nubia. The close-by Jebel Barkal was taken to stamp the southern fringe of the New Kingdom.
In 1075 BC, the High Priest of Amun at Thebes, capital of Egypt, got influential enough to farthest point the force of the pharaoh over Upper Egypt. This was the start of the Third Intermediate Period (1075 BC-664 BC). The discontinuity of force in Egypt permitted the Nubians to recapture self-governance. They established another kingdom, Kush, and focused it at Napata.